Industrial and Systems Engineer | LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/roberto-salazar-reyna/

Quality control charts represent a great tool for engineers to monitor if a process is under **statistical control**. They help visualize variation, find and correct problems when they occur, predict expected ranges of outcomes and analyze patterns of process variation from special or common causes.

Special causes of variation are detected on control charts by noticing certain types of patterns present on them. In order to truly seize the benefits of control charts, such patterns — and what they represent on a given process — must be recognized to find the reason behind special causes of variation. …

Simulation modeling is the process of replicating an existing (or potential) system into a simulation model using software and technology. Simulation models represent great resources for testing multiple systems hypothetical scenarios in risk-free environments while being able to manipulate their parameters, constraints and logic without having to incur in high costs.

However, even with the use of cutting-edge technologies and software, replicating a system into a simulation model represents a challenging task. …

Reliability is the **probability **that an item, product, machine or equipment will perform a required **function **for a given period of time, under certain operating **conditions**. In other words, it is the probability of a non-failure over time.

Simulation is one of the most widely used operations research and management science techniques. It consists in the use of mathematical methods and computer techniques to **imitate** or **simulate** the operations of various kinds of real-world facilities and process, referred as ** systems**. The assumptions of how a system works usually take the form of mathematical or logical relationships; they constitute a

Since most real-world systems are too complex to allow realistic models to be evaluated analytically, these models must be studied by means of simulation…

Data tress are visual representations of ** hierarchical **data. They are widely used in multiple fields such as decision theory, machine learning, finance, organizational management, routing algorithms, computer science and programming. Data trees help organizing data into groups and subgroups based on a hierarchy.

**Root node**: represents the very top node of the tree. All the existing data points, groups and subgroups end up linked to it. It is the node with the highest hierarchy.**Leaves**: represent children of nodes with higher hierarchies (i.e. parent nodes). They can also be parent nodes of multiple branches of leaves with lower hierarchies.**Attributes**…

An IPO (Input-Process-Output) Diagram is a very high-level diagram used for systems analysis that visually describes business processes with the description of each component in word. It shows a process key inputs and resulting outputs after a set of operations. IPO diagrams are also widely used in software engineering applications.

Represent everything that enters the system to be processed or transformed to achieve the desired outcome. Inputs can be raw materials, information, data or even an outputs from another process.

Represent the set of operations, calculations and steps required to transform the given inputs into the desired outcome. …

**GitHub** is a code hosting platform for version control and collaboration. It lets you and others work together on projects from anywhere. GitHub provides access control and several collaboration features such as **bug** **tracking**, **feature** **requests**, **task** **management**, **continuous** **integration** and **wikis** for personal, enterprise and open source project.

Don’t have a GitHub account yet? No problem. Create one *here*** **by clicking on the ‘Sign up’ button located in the right top corner. You will be asked to define a username, email address, new password and to verify your account.

Whenever your are interested in starting a brand new project…

Sampling is the process of selecting a random number of units from a known population. It allows obtaining information and drawing conclusions about a population based on the statistics of such units (i.e. the sample), without the need of having to study the entire population.

Sampling is performed for multiple reasons, including:

- Cases where it is impossible to study the entire population due to its size
- Cases where the sampling process involves samples destructive testing
- Cases where there are time and costs constrains

There are two types of sampling techniques:

**Probability sampling**: cases when every unit from a given population…

There is one main fundamental principle to make a profit out of investments in the stock market: sell stocks at a higher price than what you paid for. In other words: **buy low**,** sell high**. As simple as it sounds, but not as simple as it is.

However, there is always a time lapse between the stock price at its acquisition and its price at its selling; either its price increases or drops. For some stocks, the time required to increase (or decrease) their price is shorter or longer than for others. …

Operations Research is a scientific approach for decision making that seeks for the best design and operation of a system, usually under conditions requiring the allocation of scarce or limited resources. The scientific approach for decision making requires the use of one or more mathematical optimization models (i.e. representations of the actual situation) to make the optimum decision.

The diet problem is one of the first and most common studied optimization problems. …